One of Arnhemland's most popular & respected Aboriginal artists
One Dollar note
In 1966 David Daymirringu's painting "Mortuary Feast" was used
on the Australian one dollar note without his prior consent.
He then called himself the "Dollar Note Man".
Other Names: Doctor Daymirringu,
Other Spellings: Malanggi, Dollar George, Dollar Dave
Born: 1927 Central Arnhem Land
Died: 19 June 1999
Community Centre: Ramingining
Outstation or Country: Dhamala, Dhabila;
Yathalamarra, from mother
Language Bloc: Djinang
Social Affiliations: Djuwingi (=Dhuwa)
Moiety: Gamarrang subsection
Subjects and Themes:
Personal totems are Darrpa (King Brown snake), Djang'kawu/Djang'kawu, Djang'kawu Sisters
(associated with Dhamala), white berry tree, death adder, Gurrumurringu the male spiritual
being (associated with Ngurrunguma). He also paints the Balmbi clan story associated with
Yathalamarra. Yathalamarra (Yirritja country, from his mother) lagoon was created by the
actions of Burala (Diver Duck), Watu (Dog), Biyayngu and Bundul (Ancestral women) and
Muriyana [Murayana] (associated with the hollow log ceremony). Mangrove goannas, who hunt
in and around the waterholes. Sea snake, threadfin salmon, dhuwa catfish, Yirritja catfish,
Milminydjarrk waterhole, djanda- goanna, snake, emu, archer fish, sea eagle,
1982 Artist-in-Residence, Flinders University. 1983, June 18-29, Artist-in-Residence,
Tin Sheds, University of Sydney.
1984, Dug out Canoe, carving, completed with his wives & family, Museum of Contemporary Art,
1987, Dug out Canoe, carving, Maritime Display, Sydney Harbour.
1990, Ramingining Stories, Mural, Darwin GPO.
1991, Lions Haven for the Aged, practical painting demonstrations, Queensland.
1991, Mobil Yathalamarra Collection, NT Museum/Mobil Oil [touring]
1992, Memorial Award for Mawalan's eldest son, [Best artwork in open media] National
Aboriginal Art Award, Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, Darwin.
1993, Fourth Place, Traditional Section, Botany Art Awards, NSW.
1993, Conducted a 'Bark Painting Workshop', Kimberley Conference, Waringarri Arts, Kununurra.
1993, Honourable Mention for Ramingining Artists, Australian Heritage Commission Art
Award Exhibition, Old House Canberra [artist not named individually] Collections:
Aboriginal Art Museum, The Netherlands.
Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.
Art Gallery of Queensland, Brisbane.
Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide.
Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth.
Australian Museum, Sydney.
Berndt Museum of Anthropology, University of Western Australia.
Central Collection, Australian National University, Canberra.
Flinders University Art Museum, Adelaide.
Gold Coast City Art Gallery, Surfers Paradise, Queensland.
Linden Museum, Stuttgart, Germany.
Milingimbi Collection, MECA, Milingimbi Educational and Cultural Association.
Musee des Arts Africans et Oceaniens, Paris, France.
Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin.
Museum of Contemporary Art, Ramingining Collection, Sydney.
Museum of Contemporary Art, Arnotts Collection, Sydney.
Museum of Victoria, Melbourne.
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
National Maritime Museum, Darling Harbour, Sydney.
Reserve Bank Collection.
South Australian Museum, Adelaide.
Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Horsfall Collection, Hobart.
University of Queensland, Anthropology Museum, St Lucia.
Art Gallery of South Australia. Exhibitions:
2005 - No Ordinary Place: The Art of David Malangi, Museum and Art Gallery of the NT,
Darwin and the Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane.
2004 - No Ordinary Place the art of DAVID MALANGI DAYMIRRINGU, National Gallery of
1986 - State Bank of NSW, Sydney (arranged through Macquarie Galleries).
2008 - Form and Function - A Collection of fine 18th and 19th century Ethnographic
Objects and Bark Paintings , featuring works by: David Daymirringu Malangi, Dick
Ngulungulei, George Milpurrurru, Jacky Kalakala, January Nongyarri, Jimmy Njiminjuma,
Mickey Ganambarr, Daypurryun, Nandabitta, Narritjin,
Paddy Compass Namatbarra, Peter Bandjurljurl, Peter Maralalwanga, Philip Gudthaykudthay,
Wally Mandarrk, Wattie Karuwaram, Yama, at Coo-ee Aborignal Art, Sydney.
2004 - EXPLAINED, A closer look at Aboriginal art, Aboriginal Art Museum, Utrecht,
1995 - The Twelfth National Aboriginal Art Award, Museum and Art Gallery of the NT, Darwin;
Galerie des Five Continents, Musee des Arts Africans et Oceaniens, Paris, France.
1994 - Milminydjarrk, sand sculpture & dance, Tandanya, Adelaide Festival, SA; 1994,
Power of the Land, Masterpieces of Aboriginal Art, National Gallery of Victoria.;
The Eleventh National Aboriginal Art Award Exhibition, Museum and Art Gallery of
the NT,Darwin; Australian Heritage Commission National Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Art Award Exhibition, Old Parliament House, Canberra.;
1994, Yiribana, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.; Malu Urul, National Maritime
1993/4 - ARATJARA, Art of the First Australians, Touring: Kunstammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen,
Dusseldorf;Hayward Gallery, London; Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark.
1993 - Ten years of acquisitions,from ANU collection, Drill Hall Gallery ACT.;
1993, Arnhem Land Dreaming, Bark Paintings from Tasmanian Collections, Tasmanian Museum
and Art Gallery.
1992/3 - New Tracks Old Land: An Exhibition of Contemporary Prints from Aboriginal Australia,
touring USA and Australia.
1992 - The Ninth National Aboriginal Art Award Exhibition, Museum and Art Gallery of the
Northern Territory, Darwin; Crossroads-Towards a New Reality, Aboriginal Art from
Australia, National Museums for Modern Art, Kyoto and Tokyo.
1991 - Canvas and Bark, South Australian Museum, Adelaide.
1990 - l'ete Australien a' Montpellier, Musee Fabre Gallery, Montpellier, France.; Spirit
Ain Land, boriginal Bark Paintings from Arnhem Land, National Gallery of Victoria;
Keepers of the Secrets, Art from Arnhemland, Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth.
1989 - Aboriginal Art: The Continuing Tradition, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
1988 - Dreamings, the art of Aboriginal Australia, Asia Society Galleries, New York.
1987 - Ancestors and Spirits, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
1986 - Ramingining Art Exhibition, Araluen Arts Centre, Alice Springs, NT; The Art of the
First Australians, Kobe City Museum, Japan; The Third National Aboriginal Art Award
Exhibition, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin.
1984 - Objects & Representations from Ramingining, Power Institute [now MCA], Sydney.
1983 - Australian Perspecta, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney; XVII Bienal de Sao Paulo,
Sao Paulo, Brazil..
1979 - European Dialogue, Biennale of Sydney, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.
1975 - Australian Bark Painting, from the collection of Dr. Edward L. Ruhe, Meadow Brook
Art Gallery, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA.
1974 to 1976 - Art of Aboriginal Australia, touring Canada, Rothmans of Pall Mall Canada Ltd.
1972 - Australian Aboriginal Art, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
1974 - Australian Aboriginal Art from the Louis A. Allen Collection, M. H. de Young Memorial
Museum, California Palace of the Legion of Honor; Art of the Dreamtime, The Bennett
Collection of Australian Aboriginal Art, Adelaide Festival of Arts, Art Gallery of
South Australia, Adelaide.
1969 - Australian Aboriginal Art - The Louis A. Allen Collection, R. H. Lowie Museum of
Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley; Australie, Osobnost Primitivni'ho
MMalire, Naprstkovo uzeum, African and American Culture, Prague.
1966 - Bark Paintings from Arnhem Land, Museum of Art, The University of Kansas. Selected Biography:
Allen, L., 1975, Time Before Morning: Art and Myth of the Australian Aborigines, Thomas
Crowell Company, New York.
Bennett, D.H., 1980, 'Malangi: the man who was forgotten before he was remembered,'
Aboriginal History 4 (1) 43-47. (C)
Beresford, A., 1993, Arnhem Land Dreaming, Bark Paintings from Tasmanian Collections, exhib.
cat. Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.
Berndt, R. M. and Berndt, C. H. with Stanton, J., 1982, Aboriginal Australian Art, a Visual
Perspective, Methuen Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney.
Caruana, W., 1987, Australian Aboriginal Art, a Souvenir Book of Aboriginal Art in the
Australian National Gallery, Australian National Gallery, Parkes, Australian Capital Territory.(C)
Caruana, W. (ed.), 1989, Windows on the Dreaming, Ellsyd Press, Sydney. (C)
Caruana, W., 1993, Aboriginal Art, Thames and Hudson, London. (C)
Chanin, E., 1990, (ed.), Contemporary Australian Painting, Craftsman House, Roseville, NSW,
Crossman, S. and Barou, J-P. (eds), 1990, L'ete Australien a Montpellier: 100 Chefs d'Oevre
de la Peinture Australienne, Musee Fabre, Montpellier, France. (C)
Dussart, F., 1993, La Peinture des Aborigines D'Australie, Editions Parentheses, Marseille,
Groger-Wurm, H., 1973, Australian Aboriginal Paintings and their Mythological Interpretation,
Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra. (C)
Hill, M., and McLeod, N.,1984, From the Ochres of Mungo, Aboriginal Art Today, Dorr McLeod
Publishing, West Heidleberg, Victoria. (C)
Isaacs, J., 1984, Australia's Living Heritage, Arts of the Dreaming, Lansdowne Press,
Isaacs, J., 1989, Australian Aboriginal Paintings, Weldon Publishing, New South Wales.
Kupka, K., 1972, Peintres Aborigines d' Australie, Societe des Oceanistes,
Musee de l'Homme, Paris.
1993, Aratjara, Art of the First Australians: Traditional and Contemporary Works by
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Artists, exhib. cat. (conceived and designed by
Bernard Luthi in collaboration with Gary Lee), Dumont, Buchverlag, Koln. (C)
McCulloch, A., & McCulloch, S., 1994, The Encyclopedia of Australian Art, Allen &
Unwin Pty Ltd, St Leonards, New South Wales.
Mundine, D., 1995, 'The food chain starts here: Larrtha'puy - from
the mangroves', Artlink, Vol. 15, No. 1, 46-47.
Murphy, B., 1983, XVII Bienal de Sao Paulo, Australia, exhib. cat.
Neale, M., 1994, Yiribana, exhib. cat., Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. (C)
O'Ferrall, M., 1990, Keepers of the Secrets, Aboriginal Art from Arnhemland in the
Collection of the Art Gallery of Western Australia, Art Gallery of Western Australia,
Perkins H. 'Beyond the Year of Indigenous Peoples' in Art and Australia 1993 Vol. 31
No 1 p 98-101.
Ruhe, E. L., 1975, Australian bark painting, from the collection of Dr. Edward L. Ruhe,
exhib. cat. Meadow Brook Art Gallery, Michigan, USA.
Ryan, J., 1990, Spirit in Land, exhib. cat., National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
Short, S., 1986, Banking on Art, Saturday Telegraph, Sydney, Jan. 29
Sutton, P. (ed.), 1988, Dreamings: the Art of Aboriginal Australia, Viking, Ringwood,
Tweedie, P. and Scollay, C., 1979, 'Art of the Aboriginal,' Panorama: the Journal of Ansett
Airlines Australia 21 (2), 1,4. (C)
Tweedie, P., 1985, This My Country, A View of Arnhem Land, William Collins Pty Ltd, Sydney.
Waterlow, N., 1979, Biennale of Sydney, exhib. cat.
1974, Art of Aboriginal Australia, exhib. cat., Rothmans of Pall Mall Canada Limited. (C)
1979, European Dialogue, exhibition catalogue, Biennale of Sydney, Art Gallery of NSW,
1983, Australian Perspecta 1983, A Biennial Survey of Contemporary Australian Art,
exhib. cat., Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. (C)
1992, 'Aboriginal Art', National Gallery News, 10th Birthday edition, September/October
1992, p. 5-7. ;
Sylvia Kleinert and Margo Neale, Oxford Companion to Aboriginal Art and Culture, Melbourne,
Oxford University Press 2001, ISBN: 0195506499.
Courtesy of � Discovery Media, Documentation Pty Ltd, and the Australian
Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and Bulla Bulla Arts
David was born in 1927 in the bush at Mulanga, on the mainland opposite Milingimbi,
and went to live at Milingimbi Mission when he was a little boy to be educated. He
underwent his age-grading rites at his homeland centre, Yathalamarra before World War 2.
During the war he went back to live at Milingimbi and witnessed bombing from there.
After the war he worked for the Mission, erecting fences and gardening. Here he also
married his promised wife, Elsie Ganbadha. He continued to work at Milingimbi doing
stock work and building mud brick houses for the people.
During all this time, however, he kept taking lengthy breaks to go across to the mainland
by canoe to his homeland area, Yathalamarra, and in the late fifties he decided to live
there permanently, with all his wives and children. The country belongs to his mother and
some of his wives. He is now the ceremonial leader of the Manharrngu Clan, which owns vast
tracts of land on the east and western banks of the Glyde River and the land where
Ramingining barge landing has been built, on the shores of the Arafura Sea.
There are strings of beautiful freshwater billabongs throughout the area, and David
has made his permanent camp beside the Yathalamarra billabong, created in the Dreamtime
by the Djankawu Sisters. He and his family grubbed out by hand a dirt road twelve miles
long so that his people would have better access to the township of Ramingining,
established in the early 1970's. David is most famous for his depiction of the Gurrumarringu
Ceremony, part of the Manharrngu Mortuary rites, and this design was used on the Australian
one dollar note, which has now been replaced by a coin. Since then he has always referred
to himself as the "dollar note man". He is represented in many books, art museums and
galleries throughout Australia and the world.